History & Geographic Characteristics
Egypt is a country in North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia. The northern coast borders the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern coast borders the Red Sea, which makes Egypt’s geographical place a very strategic one.
Overview of Egypt
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world’s great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt’s government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure
Cultural side of Egypt
Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world’s most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and the Great Sphinx; the southern city of Luxor contains a particularly large number of ancient artifacts such as the Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings. Today, Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural centre of the Middle East. In addition to much more monuments returning to Coptic Christian Egypt, Islamic Egypt, and Modern Egypt
Congress hosting city, is Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos. Its metropolitan area is the 16th largest in the world.Located near the Nile Delta,Nicknamed “the city of a thousand minarets” for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a center of the region’s political and cultural life.Cairo is also associated with Ancient Egypt as it is close to the ancient cities of Memphis, Giza and Fustat which are near the Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza.
THE EGYPTIAN MUSEUM
Contains many important pieces of ancient Egyptian history. It houses theworld’s largest collection of Pharaonic antiquities, and many treasures of King Tutankhamen. The museum exhibits over 120000 objects, some of the important groups of these objects are: Artifacts from the tombs of kings and members of the royal families of the Middle Kingdom found at Dahshur in 1894.The contents of the royal tombs of Tuthmosis III, Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep III and Horemheb and the tomb of Yuya and Thuya.Artifacts from the tomb of Tutankhamun, consisting of more than 3500 Pieces, of which 1700 objects are displayed in the museum (the rest are in storerooms).
SAKKARA, THE GIZA PYRAMIDS AND SPHINX
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures found at Giza on the outskirts of Cairo. The Giza pyramids are counted among the largest built.
The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.